week 5 – no lecture on 27th

Hi All,

As far as I can see from campusnet activity, your project work is going well. I only have to small reminders; the users should be anonymous [ no real names, no exact addressess: 2200 or nørrebro is fine / Jagtvej 69, st. tv. 2200 København is not fine…]. Also please cite your resources properly…

Regarding the heuristic evaluation part; below are supplementary material (scientific journal/conference papers) that might be of interest to you:

nielsen’s heuristic evaluation of user interfaces: http://www.cs.panam.edu/~rfowler/csci6362/papers/13_Nielsen-Molich_1990_Heuristic-Evaluation-of-User-Interfaces_CHI.pdf

comparing nielsen’s and Gerhart-powell’s heuristics: http://www.sciencedirect.com.globalproxy.cvt.dk/science/article/pii/S095354380600138X

And below is an excerpt for an overview of different heuristics (from the paper: “Architecting for usability: a survey”, http://www.sciencedirect.com.globalproxy.cvt.dk/science/article/pii/S0164121202001590#sec4.2.2)

4.2.2. Design heuristics and principles

Design heuristics and principles for usability suggest properties and principles that have a positive effect on usability. The following list of design heuristics and principles is created based upon surveys provided in Keinonen (1998) and Baecker et al. (1995).

  • Eight golden rules of dialogue design (Shneiderman, 1986).
  • Usability heuristics (Nielsen, 1993).
  • Usability principles (Constantine and Lockwood, 1999).
  • Evaluation check list for software inspection (Ravden and Johnson, 1989).
  • Guidelines on user interaction design (Hix and Hartson, 1993).
  • Seven principles that make difficult task easy (Norman, 1988).
  • Design for successful guessing (Polson and Lewis, 1990).
  • Dialogue principles (ISO 9241 DIS, 1992).
  • Design for successful guessing (Holcomb and Tharp, 1991).
  • Design principles (Rubinstein and Hersh, 1984).

The principles stated above almost all address usability issues mentioned below according to Keinonen (1998).

  • Consistency: Users should not have to wonder whether different words, situations, or actions mean the same thing. It is regarded as an essential design principle that consistency should be used within applications. Consistency makes learning easier because things have be learned only once. The next time the same thing is faced in another application, it is familiar. Visual consistency increases perceived stability which increases user confidence in different new environments.
  • Task match: Designers should provide just the information that the users needs no more no less, and in the order that the users prefers to use this information.
  • Appropriate visual presentation: User interface design has focused on this aspect of user control. This issue has recently been extended to include multimedia, for example, voice control applications. For a user to be effectively in control he has to be provided with all necessary information.
  • User control: It is a design principle that direct manipulation should be supported, for instance, the user should feel that he is in control of the application. Interaction is more rewarding if the users feel that they directly influence the objects instead of just giving the system instructions to act.
  • Memory-load reduction: People do not remember unrelated pieces of information exactly, thus where precise recollection is required; for instance in a task, many errors may be expected. Interaction therefore should rely more on user recognition than on recall. Recall is prone to errors, whereas people are very good at recognizing objects. The allocation of work between humans and computers should be such that computers present alternatives and patterns, while people select and edit.
  • Error handling: All usability principles address the issue of error handling or error recovery. Error recovery relieves anxiety, enabling users to discover new alternatives, facilitating learning by doing.
  • Guidance and support: In order to help the user understand and use the system, informative, easy to use and relevant guidance and support should be provided in both the application and the user manual.




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